The special liturgy for this day is one of the great treasures of Christian spirituality. As a sign of unusual mourning and penitence, both today and tomorrow the Church refrains from celebrating the Holy Eucharist and still in most places does not administer Holy Communion to the faithful. In effect, we place ourselves under a sentence of excommunication as we remember the crime of our Saviour's death. Today's liturgy is merely a "liturgy of the Word," which Anglicans of another generation called the Ante-communion.
Two further features of the Good Friday liturgy are the Solemn Collccts and the Reproaches which are chanted or read during the Veneration of the Cross. Both of these have archaic qualities which recall the earliest centuries of Christian history. In the "Solemn Collects" we remember that in His very death our Lord was officiating as our Great High Priest . His first "word from the cross" was a prayer of intercession, "Father forgive them." So His Church, keeping vigil with Him on Calvary, intercedes for all her children and likewise for the whole world.
The nine prayers of intercession are comprehensive, beginning with the bishops and hierarchy of the Church, proceeding with "all estates of men in thy holy Church," continuing on with various special needs, and concluding with prayers for the Jews and for the heathen. Each intercession has a special bidding, "Let us pray for..." One phrase runs through and unites them: "the Lord our God."
Here we have an echo of the covenant formula which unlocks the entire Bible, "I will be your God, and ye shall be my people, and I will dwell with you."
The covenant of grace, first intimated in the Garden of Eden in God's curse of the serpent and later inaugurated with Abraham, comes into sharp focus today. When was that promise ever so rejected, or ever so confirmed, as it was at the death of the Messiah? When the Word of God was made flesh and dwelt among us in Jesus Christ, human wickedness (the depravity of all mankind) reached its lowest and vilest point in His murder. But never has the covenant promise been so ratified as it was when He prayed "My God, my God." We might lose our way in the rest of that word of dereliction, "why hast thou forsaken me," if we forget that He was pleading the covenant promise, "I will be your God." Never was God so perfectly "our God" as when He put forth His only-begotten Son to be the propitiation for our sins. The covenant language in the Solemn Collects should remind us that like our dying Saviour we are pleading the promises of the Covenant sealed in His Blood.
In the Reproaches, we have a meditation on a passage from the prophet Micah.
Here are the original words (Micah 6:3--5).
O my people, what have I done to you?
How have I wearied you?
For I brought you up from the land of Egypt
And redeemed you from the house of slavery,
and I sent before you Moses, Aaron and Miriam.
O my people, remember what Balak, king of Moab devised,
and what happened from Shittim to Gilgal,
that you may know the saving acts of the LORD.
This address of the LORD to Israel was part of a covenant lawsuit, in which He had called on his unfaithful and idolatrous people to to give an account of their breach-of-contract with the God who had redeemed them. Their situation is untenable, they have no defense in the LORD's courtroom, they have invoked His curses, their doom is certain.
Micah's description of the covenant lawsuit of God against His people is recalled on Good Friday because on Calvary this untenable situation was resolved, when Jesus Christ took upon Himself our guilt and our doom, by enduring the curse which we have justly provoked. It is of some interest that Micah describes this lawsuit as taking place "before the mountains." He may have foreseen Jesus' walk up Calvary's hill to answer for us. Surely it was there that the greatest "saving act" of the Lord took place.
It is truly sad that this magnificent liturgical poetry (brilliantly set to music) is so little known. This is owing to the frivolous notion that the Old Testament allusions are somehow anti-Semitic and offensive to the Jewish people. We must be quick to say that the address "O my people" is not directed toward the idolatrous Israelites of Micah's day, nor to the Sanhedrin which sent Jesus to Pilate, and certainly not to the Jewish people of later centuries. The Reproaches are addressed, specifically and painfully, to ourselves, the Christian community of here and now. Because of the "new covenant" which our Saviour announced in the Upper Room (really the ancient covenant of grace re-established and made new), we are God's covenant people. And we too are faithless, idolatrous, guilty covenant-breakers. I am not convinced that it was sensitivity for Jewish feelings that has placed the Reproaches in our liturgical attic. Each time I read them I feel bound to respond, "Holy God, holy and mighty, holy and immortal, have mercy" not upon them, but "upon us."
Mercifully, the Reproaches do not end with the covenant lawsuit in which we are convicted. The conclusion is, "We venerate the Cross, O Lord, and praise and glorify thy holy Resurrection, for by virtue of the Cross joy hath come to the whole world."
ONCE FOR ALL
The central and most important prayer of our Prayer Book is the one found on pages 80 and 81, called the Prayer of Consecration. The more technical and ancient name for this prayer is the “Canon,” a Greek word meaning rule or norm. This prayer not only consecrates bread and wine for the Lord’s Supper, but is also a normative statement of our church’s teaching concerning the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist.
Near the beginning of this all-important prayer we find the words: by his one oblation of himself once offered.” These words are placed in parentheses, but surely not to suggest that they are optional or unimportant but to emphasize their critical importance. These words are there to give point to the following language, “a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world.” Had it not been “once for all,” the sacrifice of Calvary would have been less than perfect and insufficient for our salvation.
This language has been part of our Anglican liturgy since the original Prayer Book of 1549. It is interesting that Archbishop borrowed all this from the Roman Catholic Archbishop Herman of Cologne.
The intent was to refute two serious errors of the late Middle Ages. One was the grotesque notion that at every celebration of the Mass, our Lord and Saviour is re-sacrificed or even re-crucified. The other error was the curious idea that every mass has only a finite value as a meritorious act. Therefore if one mass is good, two would be better, and 1,000 would be better still. This was the basis for masses with a special intention and for mass stipends. We must be quick to say that such was never the dogmatic teaching of the pre-Reformation Church nor of the Roman Church at the Reformation or now.
Authentic Biblical teaching exposes this popular belief as radically wrong. St. John tells us that at His death, our Lord uttered the cry of victory, “It is finished,” with a Greek word which was a book-keeper’s term meaning “paid in full.” His death was decisive, final and unrepeatable.
The Epistle to the Hebrews, in a passage we read on Good Friday, contrasts the sacrifice made by Jesus, the Great high Priest, with the sacrifices made over and over, morning and night, every day of the year, by the priests of the Old testament. Hebrews uses a very emphatic word, “For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.” The word which Hebrews hammers home is EPHAPAX, once for all,
We treasure our prayer book for its clear Biblical, Reformed and truly catholic teaching. Our Saviour made one unique and perfect sacrifice for us, which we can never repeat, to which we can add nothing, on which we may confidently rely for our salvation. LKW